3.14.2013

The Guermantes Way: III p 308-19

p 308 | Émile Augier 1820 – 89) was a French dramatist the 13th member to occupy seat 1 of the Académie française, 31 March 1857. However the line "Qu'importe le cflacon pourvu qu'on ait l'ivresse!" was written by Romantic poet Alfred de Musset, not Augier.
p 308 |  Maurice Maeterlinck (1862 – 1949) was a Belgian playwright, poet, and essayist who wrote in French and received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1911. The main themes in his work are death and the meaning of life. His plays form an important part of the Symbolist movement. His play Les Sept Princesses  (The Seven Princesses) was published in 1891.  In one act, it concentrates essentially on decor and atmosphere rather than on action.  
p 308 | Joséphin Péladan (1858- 1918) was a French novelist.   He established the Salon de la Rose + Croix for painters, writers, and musicians sharing his artistic ideals, the Symbolists in particular. Treharne notes"Sar Péladan": the French Decadent writer Joseph Péladan (1858-1918), novelist, essayist, and author of "occultist" dramas. He claimed to be a Rosicrucian magus (Sar). 
p 311 | graminivorous: feeding on grass; herbivorous
p 312 | Maria Dorothea of Austria (1867–1932) was a member of the Hungarian line of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine and an Archduchess of Austria and Princess of Bohemia, Hungary, and Tuscany by birth. Through her marriage to Philippe, Duke of Orléans, she was also the Duchess of Orléans.
p 313 | Dulcinea:  the name Don Quixote gives to the (blissfully unaware) woman he has made himself The Champion of, for whom he is willing to risk his life. In the Spanish of the time, Dulcinea means something akin to an overly elegant "sweetness." To refer to one's "Dulcinea" is to refer to the object of one's hopeless devotion and idealized love. 
p 313 | Dreyfusard = Dreyfus was framed (Marcel, Zola, writers, artists, Jews);
             anti-Dreyfusard = Dreyfus was guilty (govt, nobility & military).
 p 315 | Treharne notesthe Zola trial: Zola was brought to trial in 1898, after the publication of his famous letter to the president of the Republic, published in L'Aurore of January 13 of the same year and entitled "J'accuse," proclaiming the innocence of Dreyfus after Esterhazy's acquittal. 
p 315 | Treharne notes: Miribel (1831-93) had been chief of staff of the French army.  Colonel Hubert-Joseph Henry, an ardent anti-Dreyfusard, forged a crucial incriminating document against Dreyfus. This was exposed in 1898, and he was imprisoned. He committed suicide the day after his imprisonment.
p 315 | Georges Picquart (1854–1914) was a French army officer. As chief of the army's intelligence section in 1896, Picquart discovered that the memo used to convict Dreyfus had been the work of Major Ferdinand Esterhazy. Though warned to conceal his discovery, Picquart persisted & continued his investigation. He was hindered & sabotaged by subordinate officers, notably Major Henry. As a consequence, Picquart was relieved of duty with the Bureau. After the Zola trial, Picquart was himself accused of forging the note that had convinced him of Esterhazy's guilt. He was then arrested for forgery & was awaiting court martial while the French Supreme Court was reviewing the Dreyfus case. After a second court-martial, Picquart resigned from the army, but the exoneration of  Dreyfus in 1906 also absolved Picquart, who was, by an act of the Chamber of Deputies, promoted to brigadier-general. He later entered Georges Clemenceau's first cabinet as Minister of War (1906-09). 
p 315 | Athena is the Greek goddess of wisdom, courage, inspiration, civilization, law and justice, just warfare, mathematics, strength, strategy, the arts, crafts, and skill. 
p 316 | Moira : one of the three Fates who controlled the metaphorical thread of life of every mortal from birth to death.
p 318 | Treharne notes: "Patrie Française": an anti-Dreyfus league founded in 1898 by various literary figures, soon joined by a great many academics, opposed to a retrial. 
p 319 | Treharne notes: the "Syndicate": during the Dreyfus Affair, French anti-Semites chose to imagine that the country was the victim of a conspiracy led by a Jewish "Syndicate."